Acid-base and aquatic chemistry

Acids, bases, pH tutorial - this 19-part tutorial from the University of B.C. provides extensive coverage of acid-base chemistry, as well as the common ion effect and biological applications. There is a separate multiple-choice quiz page for each section.

Acid-base chemistry (UNC-Chapel Hill) Good summary with example problems.

ChemBuddy tutorials on Acid-Base and pH calculations - a well-written and understandable treatment organized into 20+ subtopics.

Acid and Base Tutorial (U of British Columbia) - Another nicely-organized set of lessons, each consisting of a well-done tutorial including worked problems, plus a multiple-choice quiz.

Acid-base tutorial (PDF format; Dan Dill, Boston U) - this excellent tutorial covers all the major topics commonly encountered at the general chemistry level, with an unusualy thorough treatment of buffer systems.

Acid-base without algebra A simple graphical method of solving pH problems that gives as good answers as algebraic solutions and provides a global view of what species are significant at any pH. Especially useful for polyprotic systems which would otherwise require solution of many simultaneous equations.

All about acids and bases - this set of seven lessons covers the fundamental concepts (Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis) of acids and bases in considerable detail. Other lessons include an elementary treatment of pH and titration, how to recognize acidic and basic substances from their structures, and a gallery of commonly-encountered acids and bases. Aside from the material on pH, there is no math in this lesson set; acid-base equilibrium calculations are not covered here. (S.K. Lower, Chem1 Virtual Textbook)

ChemBuddy pH Calculation tutorials - an extensive set of online tutorials covering most aspects of acid-base calculations.

Diprotic and triprotic acids and bases -

The fall of the proton: Will this acid react with that base? How to understand acid-base reactions (This simple view of modern acid-base theory dates from 1954, but still hasn't made it into most textbooks!)

Acid-base titration simulator - by Bob Hanson is a flexible, easy-to-use page that allows students to explore a large variety of acid-base systems, including polyprotic ones. There is also the choice of using "first-year" or mass-charge balance methods.

Analytical Chemistry

The analytical chemistry springboard Very nicely organized and annotated, by Knut Irgum

Analytical instruments and spectroscopic concepts - this site, nicely organized by Tom Chasteen of Sam Houston State U., contains tutorial materials on various topics in the form of Web pages, PDF files and Quicktime movies.

Analytical resources from Sheffield Hallam University (UK) has a number of tutorials on chromatography, visible - and IR absorption, and NMR.

Analytical Sciences Digital Library - This NSF-sponsored site contains links to a variety of materials relating to analytical chemistry, including Web pages and lab manuals for individual courses.

Instrumental Chemistry - This anonymous and rather peculiar set of pages deals mainly with analytical separation methods: theory, liquid phase, gas phase, and sample preparation. It employs a series of selectable graphics, many of them very good, and displays some text relating to each one, although it rarely offers a detailed explanation of each image.

What is Chromatography? - this nicely-done General Chemistry Online page offers a very brief but visually appealing survey of the subject.

What is mass spectrometry? A nicely organized set of "FAQ"-like introductory pages at this American Society for Mass Spectrometry site.


Atoms and quantum theory

Quantum States of Atoms and Molecules is the first of a series of digital "Living Textbooks" published by the Journal of Chemical Education.

Introduction to Atoms - A concise exposition of the principles (including elementary quantum theory) with some interesting twists. John Denker

Atoms and the periodic table - a six-chapter first-year level treatment of basic quantum theory, atomic spectra, electron configurations, chemical periodicity and the organization of the periodic table. Part of S.K. Lower's General Chemistry Virtual Textbook.

Primer on Quantum Theory of the Atom - A set of in-frequently asked questions in the form of a quantum catechism. (Students: you can have some fun by asking your teacher some of the simpler questions, like "why does the electron not fall into the nucleus", but make sure you  know the answer first!)

Introduction to the electronic structure of atoms and molecules - a well-organized series of pages which extend into chemical bonding. (Alfred Bader, McMaster U)

An introduction to quantum mechanics features a nicely-organized set of short pages with interesting graphics and a minimum of mathematics. Many are accompanied by voice descriptions of the material displayed. This multi-authored site is one of several "Betha Chemistry Tutorials" at Ohio State U.

Theoretical Chemistry: a Self-Guided Introduction for College Students - this very nicely done site by Jack Simons of U. Utah "is intended to provide college science majors with a brief introduction to the field of theoretical chemistry, both in a historical context and as it is practiced today." The sections vary in difficulty, but some are suitable for HS level.

{What is a wave function? What is an orbital?} An Introduction to Quantum Mechanics - a set of 16 modules with text, diagrams, and [optional] spoken descriptions from Ohio State University. (≤ 2008)


Basic stuff

KnowledgeDoor - an excellent compendium of Chemistry- and Science-related data, in many ways more comprehensive than the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, and certainly more convenient to use. Should be bookmarked by every serious Chemistry student!

What is Chemistry all about? An introduction to chemical science. This tutorial attempts to present the major concepts that define modern chemistry, without, of course, getting into the gory details! As far as possible, macroscopic and microscopic views are presented in parallel; thus the concept of composition is divided into formula and structure. Energetics, dynamics, and synthesis are the other principal concepts. The unit concludes with an illustrated summary of the main currents of modern chemistry. (S. Lower, Chem1 Virtual Textbook)

Preliminaries: stuff you should know before delving too far into Chemistry - tutorials covering the following topics: classification and properties of matter, density and buoyancy, energy, heat and temperature, units and dimensions, measurement error, significant figures and rounding off (these last three topics are identical with the first three in the lesson described immediately below.) (S. Lower, Chem1 Virtual Textbook)

Chem Professor - Tutorials for adults who are new to the study of chemistry and want to know more. (Kelley Whitley)

Matter and measure: all about units, uncertainty, significant figures,and how to deal with experimental error. Thorough coverage of the basic ideas relating to units and dimensions, the SI system, accuracy, precision, and uncertainty in measurements, significant figures and rounding off, treatment of random and systematic error, standard deviation. There is also an introduction to the statistical treatment of data that covers confidence intervals, and some of the more important tests commonly encountered in quantitative chemistry.

Rounding algorithms 101 - a well-done exposition of the algorithms for various styles of rounding numerical data.

Chemical reaction stoichiometry site provides tutorials for both beginners and advanced students on how to analyze the stoichiometry of a reacting system of any degree of complexity.

Writing Chemical Reactions - this PDF document by Steve Marsden provides an overview, with worked examples, of the types of reactions that fall within the scope of the AP exams.

Introduction to Scaling Laws - A good treatment of a topic that everybody knows a little about, but few take it as far as they should. By John Denker

Introduction to basic atomics, mole concept, calculations based on formulas and equations, and nomenclature - (S.K. Lower, Chem1 Virtual Textbook) these five lessons offer in-depth treatment of these topics at an introductory level.

ChemBalancer A game that illustrates balancing equations in a concrete way (students actually see the molecules appear on the screen as they type in coefficients - thus they can count up the number of each type of atom.) This is now a Web-based Windows-only program implemented in DHTML and JavaScript which supplants the older Visual Basic version. A Teacher's lesson plan is also available.

Nomenclature - naming chemical compounds

{About Temperature} - a very nicely-done page by Beverly Lynds. (last archived update 5/2005)

Introduction to Scaling Laws - a tutorial by John Denker

Significant figures and rounding off: How to avoid telling lies with numbers. (S.K. Lower, Chem1 Virtual Textbook)

Stoichiometry - this U of N. Carolina site presents material on balancing equatins, the Mole, and various aspects of chemical arithmetic.

Balancing chemical equations - a graded series of drills based on a collection of more than 1200 chemical reactions. From Mark R. Leach.

What is pseudoscience? All about pseudoscience, bad science, and pathological science. How to tell the difference from science. (S.K. Lower, Chem1 Virtual Textbook)

{Molar Masses}: Atomic, molecular and formula masses or "weights" - a nice tutorial, with built07.10.2015s="red">(Link is to lastarchived update, 2/2006.)

{Avogadro's Hypothesis} - another good-but-gone David Dice page. (Link is to last archived update, 2/2006.)

Introduction to Scaling Laws (John Denker) "There are many different scaling laws. At one extreme, there are simple scaling laws that are easy to learn, easy to use, and very useful in everyday life. Scaling laws can be and should be introduced at the elementary-school level, and then reinforced and extended every year through middle school, high school, and beyond. ... You don’t need to be a Nobel laureate to get a lot of value from scaling laws."


NIH Institute of General Medical Sciences publishes a variety of free materials aimed at the general public, now available online and also as downloadable E-PUB and PDF documents. The interesting chapter titles should appeal to a wide diversity of readers from high school on up. Some of the chemistry-related titles are Inside the Cell - (A very nicely-done introduction to cellular biochemistry), The Chemistry of Health, and Medicines by Design.

Bare Bones Biochemistry - This page by J.C. Anderson of UC-Berkeley is an introduction to the "chemistry" of biochemistry, aimed mainly at beginners.

DNA Structure - An Interactive Animated Nonlinear Tutorial by Eric Martz, adapted for JMol. This tutorial is designed to complement an introduction to DNA, by providing tools for a self-directed exploration. The site includes a lesson plan for teachers.

Biochemistry of metabolism: Instructional materials for a studio-format course. This Rensselaer Polytechnic site provides an extensive set of tutorials on molecular and cellular biochemistry.

{The Cell Chemistry page} by Ken House is an extensive and well-organized collection of links to specific areas of biochemistry and related chemistry tutorial materials. (last archived update 5/2008)

Learning about photosynthesis This collection of links suitable for students provides access to a variety of sites ranging in level from elementary through college.

Protein Primer: a musical introduction to protein structure - well, this page by M.A. Clark of Texas Wesleyan U. is certainly something different!


Chemical bonding, molecules

All about chemical bonding. Comprehensive "virtual textbook" at the college General Chemistry level, completely revised in 2007. Covers covalent bonding and polar covalence, shapes of molecules (VSEPR theory), hybrid orbitals, molecular orbitals applied to simple diatomics, introduction to transition metal d-orbital splitting and band theory of metals and semiconductors. (Steve Lower, SFU)

Chemogenesis: How chemical reactivity emerges from the periodic table of the elements - this free Web book by Mark Leach ties together a lot of chemistry in a fascinating, comprehensive way, with lots of excellent illustrations including many specialized periodic tables. The pages on the use of van Arkel-Ketalaar triangles and the Laing Tetrahedron to correlate various bonding types are especially interesting.

A set of curricular material built around the use of the Spartan molecular modeling software and aimed at the high-school level can be found at the excellent site put up by Mike Ellison and Rosa Hemphill.

Chemical Bonding - some really basic stuff (These are brief treatments of some of the topics covered more extensively in All about chemical bonding described above.)

Models of chemical bonding: what makes chemical bonds? - Do chemical bonds really exist? Nobody has ever "seen" one, so the best we can do is construct models. Here is a brief discussion.

Covalent, ionic, or what? Understanding polar covalence in ion-derived solids, gradations between covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding in solids. Do ionic bonds really exist?

The electron-tunneling model of chemical bonding How can those electron-dot diagrams showing shared electrons happily sitting between the nuclei be consistent with the principle that opposit 07.10.2015 inDate format:Ge1 -->14.08.2006 you are unlikely to find it in any textbook!

Molecular Database - This site lists many examples of all the major VSEPR arrangements. For each molecule, structural information (including internuclear distances) is provided.

Lewis Dot Diagrams ... or not - some of John Denker's thoughts on these subjects.

Introduction to Molecular Orbital Theory - Slightly more advanced than the usual presentation, this page contains MO diagrams for a few structures not ordinarily shown in beginning texts, including H2O, NH3, and butadiene.

VSEPR theory - This summary with easy access to many images is a hypertext version of the chapter on this subject from a textbook by Mark Winter (U Sheffield).

VSEPR for General Chemistry - This Purdue University site features a useful set of practice problems and requires the downloadable CHIME plug-in.

What is a coordination compound? - A nine-part tutorial on ligands, Lewis acids and bases, and coordi7-10-2015ref="">Fullerene Science - In this module by John Bleeke and Regina Frey, developed as part of the ChemLinks project, fullerene science is used to introduce the following chemical concepts: molecular structure and bonding, solid-state structure, modern spectroscopy, chemical reactivity, and synthesis. The material is presented in the form of an instructor's manual. Student activities and problems are included, as are literature references.

Library of inorganic structures - over 1600 structures of inorganic molecules, polyhedra and bioinorganic compounds, accessed through an interactive periodic table. Also at this site, a gallery of visually interesting molecules.

Stereochemistry - the Molecular models tutorial by Daniel Berger of Bluffton College covers structure, projections, and chirality at the elementry level. It is intended for use with the Molecular Visions model kit and. requires the Chime plug-in.

The {Point Group Tutorial} (Emory U.) is a multimedia program designed to help students identify symmetry elements and assign point groups to molecules. The program includes example molecules for each point group and an interactive tutorial based on the traditional flow-chart method for assigning point groups. (≤ 2006)

Electrochemistry and redox

All about Electrochemistry - An in-depth, comprehensive treatment in eight sections (Steve Lower)

Electrochemistry tutorials - a set of nicely-done tutorials and practice problems from Purdue University. The material is organized into two separate sites, one on {electrochemical reactions and the Nernst equation}, and the other on {electrolytic cells}. (≤ 2005)

Oxidation-reduction diagrams - raphical ways of organizing and correlatiing oxidation states of the elements. Latimer, Frost, and Pourbaix diagrams.

{Electrochemistry class notes} (≤ 2004) by J. Baird of Brown Univ.

Oxidation/Reduction - This comprehensive site by Robert Asato of Leeward CC in Hawaii covers the basics of oxidation numbers and balancing, as well as applications such as batteries, corrosion, and biochemistry. There is also a set of interactive practice exercises.

Batteries - There are two sections to this site. About Batteries presents an animated description of how batteries work. There is also a Simulation of a Pb!AgCl !! Ag!PbCl2 cell in which the user can set various parameters. (Gary Bertrand, U Missouri-Rolla)

The fall of the electron. How to predict the direction of oxidation-reduction reactions. Discussion of the activity series of the elements and of oxidation-reduction in metabolism.

Electrochemical Cell Simulator by Gary Bertrand

A tutorial on batteries and cell thermodynamics by Gary Bertrand includes animated diagrams of charge migration in cells.



All about chemical equilibrium - This thorough treatment sets out the underlying concepts without invoking thermodynamics or complicated calculations; considerable emphasis is placed on the distinction between Q and K. The section on equilibrium calculations contains problem examples illustrating techniques such as iterative and graphical solutions of polynomials, all of which employ the "systematic" method of organizing information.

UNC-Chapel Hill provides a compact summary of this topic.

Here is a translation of le Châtelier's original paper from Carmen Giunta's excellent Classic Chemistry site.



Properties of gases: matter at its simplest - a six-part "virtual textbook" treatment of the gaseous state of matter by Steve Lower. Includes numerous examples of application of kinetic molecular theory and a section on real gases.

Gas pressure in a can of soda

The Can Crush Demo with a Real Life Example shows that railway tank cars can suffer the same fate as soda cans!

Kinetic Molecular Theory tutorial - a nice Shockwave presentation by Mark Bishop.

This gas simulation from Oklahoma State U. allows the user to adjust many different variables. Detailed instructions are provided that serve as the basis for a number of exploration exercises.



Survey of environmental geobiochemistry provides an overview of "environmental chemistry" in its broadest context: the chemical evolution and constitution of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.


Kinetics and mechanisms

Chemical kinetics and dynamics - A comprehensive treatment of rates of reaction, rate laws, activation energy, and reaction mechansms. (Part of the Chem1 Virtual Textbook)


Liquids, solids, materials

Structures of Simple Inorganic Solids - This site by S.J. Heyes of Oxford offers an exceptionally complete coverage of elementary crystallography and the representation of crystal structures. Lots of good illustrations.

"Water: its structure and importance" is a comprehensive and informative Web-based resource on water science by Martin Chaplin of South Bank University (UK).

Water and hydrogen bonding - First-year-level treatment the "anomalous" properties of water, structure of liquid water and of ice, hydrogen bonding in small molecules and in biopolymers. (Part of the Chem1 Virtual Textbook)
For a more general audience, the similar page A gentle introduction to hydrogen bonding and structure in liquid water may be more suitable.

An illustrated summary of {intermolecular forces, and hydrogen bonding} by Michael Blaber of Florida State U (Link is to last archived update 12/2006.)

Ionic and ion-derived solids - a detailed look at alkali halide energetics and structures, and extended structures. (Part of the Chem1 Virtual Textbook)

Introduction to crystals - how the external forms of crystals relate to their internal structures. Cover the empirical laws of crystals, lattices and unit cells, Miller indices, and factors affecting growth habits. (Part of the Chem1 Virtual Textbook)

Cubic crystal lattices and close packing - the origins of long-range order in solids. Face-centered and body-centered structures. (Part of the Chem1 Virtual Textbook)

Liquids and their interfaces - An introduction to liquids: viscosity, surface tension, interfacial effects including wetting, capillary rise, and bubble formation. (Part of the Chem1 Virtual Textbook)

Changes of state: vapor pressure, boiling, phase maps - Vapor pressure and the stabiity of a phase, condensation, boiling and nucleation, phase diagrams of representative substances, phases at the extremes of temperature and pressure, helium phase weirdness. (Part of the Chem1 Virtual Textbook)

The {Fullerene Science Module} (Bleeke and Frey, Washington U) provides a nice introduction to the world of buckyballs. (Link is to last archived update 4/2007.)

Nanotechnology Information Center: A brief survey of nanotechnology and of specific kinds of nanoparticles and their applications from a manufacturer's site.

Exploring the Nanoworld - This wonderful site is maintained by the NSF-financed Interdisciplinary Education Group at U Wisc-Madison. It uses examples of nanotechnology and advanced materials to explore science and engineering concepts mainly at the college level, but there are also sections for K-12. There are links to movies, lab experiments, kits (including Lego nanobricks) and instructional materials.

Lessons on cryonics from Metallurgy and Ceramics - this site has some interesting expositions on eutectics, properties of solids, ice, and glass.

Nuclear chemistry

Nuclear chemistry tutorial links by Steve Marsden

The Particle Adventure: the fundamentals of matter and force. This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory site allows you to explore the world of fundamental particles and forces and then to investigate the experimental evidence and techniques.

Michael Edmiston of Bluffton College has written two excellent handouts available in pdf format:

Nuclide table - an interactive table of the nuclides by J. Chang of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.

Fusion Energy Resources - a variety of information and educational resources on nuclear fusion from the General Atomics fusion group.

Organic chemistry

Free Organic Chemistry textbook - Individual chapters of Organic Chemistry by Daley & Daley can be downloaded as pdf files.

Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry - a nicely designed, comprehensive site with tutorials and practice problems. By William Reusch of Michigan State U.

AceOrganicChem - Organic chemistry e-books and review videos,  $

O=Chem This University of Maine site consists of a large collection of tutorial lessons covering most aspects of organic chemistry.

Organic Chemistry Help Immediately ("OCHeM") - this site offers a wide variety of materials: tutorials, Web-flashcards, practice questions, lab information, and practice exams.

Beginning Organic Chemistry "A guide to what sometimes appears to be an impossible task" by David Woodcock (Okanagan U, Canada). See some of his other organic sites.

{Exploring Organic Chemistry: An Electronic Textbook} (≤ 2003) - a very comprehensive and nicely organized site by two faculty at U. Illinois - Springfield.

StudyOrgo - offers a variety of materials for learning organic chemistry. $

Curly Arrows site - This web site is intended to help students learn the use of the "curly arrows" employed in the representation of organic reactions, and to gain practice in using them to draw reaction mechanisms in an interactive environment that provides feedback. (U. of Aberdeen)

Play the Chirality Game - a nice introduction to mirror-image chemistry by the Nobel Institute.

Combinatorial Chemistry Review - a well-organized summary of he principles of combinatorial synthesis, the ability to generate large numbers of chemical compounds very quickly.

Physical chemistry

Intermolecular forces - a multi-part tutorial covering the principal kinds of weak interactions between molecules with many examples and comparative data.

Chemical kinetics simulators - this site by Gary Bertrand allows you to simulate first-, second-, and third order kinetics and to deduce the rate constant and half life.

{Living book of physical chemistry} has some impressive graphics and Maple-assisted exercises on symmetry, kinetic theory, partition functions, group theory, but is a bit short on explanatory material.

Introduction to Quantum Chemistry - Audio feeds of a series of 31 lectures by Michelle Franci of Bryn Mawr College, available for free on iTunes. Franci's titles are always intriguing: Why are Cheetos orange and flamingos pink? Why do they call it "burning" a CD? Are pi orbitals real?

Physical Chemistry Animations - a large collection of animations covering many areas of General and Physical Chemistry, collected and organized by Rob Schurko (U Windsor, Canada)

Diffusion, Osmosis and Diffusion Potential - this site by J. Patlak and C. Watters presents some nice simulations with good expanatory material, but navigation within the site is awkward.

Physical Chemistry On-Line (part of the J Chem Ed LivTexts project) offers very nicely-done modules on a variety of topics.

Quantum States of Atoms and Molecules is the first of a series of digital "Living Textbooks" published by the Journal of Chemical Education. The site is very well organized into sub-topics and provides very thorough coverage at an intermediate level.


Physics background and review

The Physics Hypertextbook - Glenn Elert's very well-done site with interesting graphics and lots of cross-links. Very readable and interesting, set at the "Scientific American" level and suitable for high school and introductory college courses.

College Physics for Students of Biology and Chemistry - a comprehensive hypercourse by Ken Koehler. Some of the exercises require a Mathematica plug-in.

Physics 2000 - this elegantly-done site covers modern physics and its applications to such uses as microwave ovens, catscans, etc. Many of the pages include applets that require a Java-enabled browser. Much of the site appears suitable for high school students.



Macrogalleria provides an engaging and comprehensive introduction to the structure and properties of polymers. This well-crafted site from the University of Southern Mississippi sets a standard that the designers of other topics-based sites could do well to emulate.

Polymer Chemistry - A large collection of pages covering basic polymer chemistry. Part of the PCOL project (Physical Chemistry OnLine).

Polymer Chemistry Hypertext - this somewhat advanced material ( for a second-semester polymer course) is organized by concept.

Polymers and plastics: an introduction - Their general properties, how polymers are classified, how they are made; survey of common synthetic polymers, some important natural polymers, problems of plastics in the environment, recycling. (Part of the Chem1 Virtual Textbook)

TeachingPlastics is the American Plastic Council's (APC) plastics education portal and teaching resource. The site provides suggestions and information for teachers and students through interactive lesson plans for use in the classroom for children K-12.

Polymer Planet is a very elementary introduction to polymers for K-12. A PowerPoint version is available for teachers.



Structures of Simple Inorganic Solids - notes with many excellent illustrations for an Oxford University inorganic chemistry course by S.J. Heyes.

Crystallography teaching materials provide tutorials introducing different aspects of symmetry, diffraction techniques, structural science and crystallography. Developed by the International Union of Crystallography, these have been available as printed "teaching pamphlets" for many years, and are are now freely available on the Web for the use of instructors and individuals.

Crystals and minerals - this Tulane U. site by Stephen Nelson provides both Web- and PDF-based tutorials on basic crystallography and minerology.

{Diffraction crystallography tutorial} - Covers basic scattering, reciprocal space, powder diffraction, solving a simple structure, and other aspects of this subject. There are many interactive examples, and the materials may be downloaded for installation on a local server. (Th. Proffen and R.B. Neder, Würzburg) (≤ 4/2008)

Exploring Materials Engineering - Links to various materials-related sites compiled by P. Pizzo of San Jose State U.

Lessons for Cryonics from Metallurgy and Ceramics - topics such as metal crystallization, eutectics, glasses.




Magnetic Resonance

NMR Spectroscopy, Principles and Applications. This is a fairly detailed account by Henry Rzepa of Imperial College (UK). It is intended for second-year students.

NMR: "a nice little tutorial" from Sheffield Hallam University (UK). This is a good place to start if you are just trying to understand what NMR is all about.

NMR basics tutorial -This excellent tutorial site by Joseph Hornak of RIT starts at the very beginning, including the basic math required to understand NMR., and takes the subject up through Fourier transforms and spin-echo.

Applications of 1H NMR spectroscopy - A very nice tutorial on this subject.

Mass spectrometry

What is mass spectrometry? A nicely organized set of "FAQ"-like introductory pages at this American Society for Mass Spectrometry site.

The Mass Spectrometry section of the UK ChemGuide site offers a very understandable overview.

{Mass spectrometry home} - Perdue U. site by George Bodner

Mass Spectrometry: "The Martian fossils" page by Jamie Love introduces MS in the very interesting context of determining the origin of the meteorites found in Antarctica.

WebSpectra - This site was established to provide chemistry students with a library of spectroscopy problems. Interpretation of spectra is a technique that requires practice - this site provides 1H NMR and 13C NMR, DEPT, COSY and IR spectra of various compounds for students to interpret.

Visible - Ultraviolet

{UV-Vis & PES spectra} - A nicely-done introduction to visible-, ultraviolet- and photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA) by Michael Denk of Guelph University (Canada). (≤ 2008)


Surfaces and colloids

Laurie's Colloid and Interface Science home page - maintained by Laurier Schramm, U of Calgary.

Surface chemistry - An introductory collection of tutorial pages by Dr. Roger Nix, U of London.


Thermodynamics and energetics

Chemical Energetics: all about enthalpy, thermochemistry and the First Law of thermodynamics - An extensive, in-depth but largely non-mathematical substitute for the usual (and rather thin) textbook treatment. S.K. Lower, Simon Fraser University

Thermodynamics of equilibrium: all about entropy, free energy, the Second Law of thermodynamics, and why reactions take place— sometimes. S.K. Lower, Simon Fraser University.

Energy, enthalpy, and the First Law - a nice set of tutorials from Purdue U.

Thermochemistry - tutorials and problem exercises from ChemTeam

Give them money: the Boltzmann game - this package of Word, PDF and Windows software from the Journal of Chemical Education Software can be used in any high school or college chemistry classroom or lab to explore the way energy is distributed in real chemical systems and as an entry into discussions of the probabilistic nature of entropy. All that is needed is about 30 minutes, some open space, some paper money, and a group of students who know how to play (or can be taught quickly) the game "rock–paper–scissors." The relationships among probability, energy distribution, microstates, equilibrium, fluctuation, chemical reaction, and entropy as a measure of the "dispersal" of energy are discussed in the context of this activity.

The second law This qualitative presentation by Frank Lambert will be useful to students and others having limited scientific backgrounds, and to teachers who are seeking ways to make the subject more meaningful. See also his Shakespeare and Thermodynamics: Dam the Second Law, and Entropy and the second law.

Internal Energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, Free Energy, and Free Enthalpy: A Thermodynamics Primer - This is a more comprehensive (and, in parts, more advanced) summary of thermodynamics from the University of Keil (Germany). Probably best for 2-nd year college level and above.

Understanding Entropy - a conceptual, non-mathematical exposition of entropy as a measure of the spreading and sharing of thermal energy. (Excerpts from the more complete Thermodynamics of Equilibrium site referenced above; Steve Lower, SFU)

{The Page of EntRopY} - an very understandable exposition of this difficult topic by Dave Slaven of Saginaw Valley State U.