The laws of chemical equilibrium define the direction in which a chemical reaction will proceed, as well as the quantities of reactants and products that will remain after the reaction comes to an end. An understanding of chemical equilibrium and how it can be manipulated is essential for anyone involved in Chemistry and its applications.
The Chem1 Virtual Textbook is a resource for General Chemistry aimed mainly at the first-year university level. It offers a more comprehensive, organized, and measured approach than is found in most standard textbooks. It should also be accessible to advanced high-school courses, and helpful as review material for students in more advanced courses in chemistry, biology, geology, and engineering.