chem1 virtual textbook

a reference text for General Chemistry

Stephen Lower

Simon Fraser University

Why do some atoms join together to form molecules, but others do not? Why is the CO2 molecule linear whereas H2O is bent? How can we tell? How does hemoglobin carry oxygen through our bloodstream?

There is no topic more fundamental to Chemistry than the nature of the chemical bond, and the introduction you find here will provide you with an overview of the fundamentals and a basis for further study.

nicotine molecule [image source]

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To access the desired page, click one of the ten lesson titles immediately below; you can also go directly to any sub-section within a lesson by clicking on a smaller heading.


1- Molecules: properties of bonded atoms

2- Models of chemical bonding

3- The shared-electron covalent bond


4- Polar covalence, ionic solids

5- Molecular geometry

6- The hybrid orbital model: introduction

7- More on hybrid orbitals

8- Introduction to molecular orbitals

9- Bonding in coordination complexes

10- Bonding in metals and semiconductors