Most of the chemistry we deal with in the world (and in our bodies) takes place in solution, so it is important to know what factors influence the solubility of a substance, and to understand the physical properties of the resulting mixture.

The Chem1 Virtual Textbook is a resource for General Chemistry aimed mainly at the first-year university level.
It offers a more comprehensive, organized, and measured approach than is found in most standard textbooks. It should also be accessible to advanced high-school courses, and helpful as review material for students in more advanced courses in chemistry, biology, geology, and engineering.


hard water