## Chem1 Moles, formulas and equations

The eight lessons in this unit cover atomic and molecular
weights, the mole concept, and its applications to stoichiometric calculations
involving formulas and equations. A considerable number of problems are
included. It is the author's experience that many students who experience
difficulty with these topics can benefit from a more detailed treatment
of topics that are often passed over in conventional instruction; examples
are net ionic equations, and recognizing decimal equivalents of integer
ratios, which is important in understanding "simplest formula"
calculations.

**Note: this lesson set is included with
the Chem1 Starter Set; there is no need to download it separately.**

## Lesson summary

Each bulleted item is individually accessible through a
2-level menu.

**Lesson 1 - Introduction to the mole concept**

- What is a mole?
- Visualizing the mole
- Numerical problems involving Avogadro's number

**Lesson 2 -Formulas**

- How to write and read them
- Molar mass
- Calculations based on formulas

**Lesson 3 - Empirical formulas from experiment**

- True formulas vs. empirical formulas
- Formulas and mole ratios
- Formuilas from mass composition
- problem - composition of a hydrate
- problem - empirical formula of a hydrocarbon
- problem - empirical formula of a C,H,O compound

**Lesson 4 - Chemical Equations**

- How to write and balance them
- Net ionic equations

**Lesson 5 - Mass relations in chemical reactions**

- A simple synthesis: C + 2H2 -> CH4
- Oxidation of waste: CH2O + O2 -> CO2 + H2O
- Production of H2SO4 from sulfur
- Steam reforming of natural gas: CH4 + H2O -> CO +
3H2

**Lesson 6 - Limiting reactant calculations**

- Identifying the limiting reactant
- mole-mole example: CH4 + 2O2 -> CO2 + H2O
- mass-mass example: CaF2 + H2SO4 -> 2HF + CaSO4

**Lesson 7 - Volume relations in gas-phase reactions**

- Law of combining volumes
- Adjusting your carburetor

**Lesson 8 - Molar solution stoichiometry**

- solution molarity
- a titration problem (Cl- in water by Ag+ titration)

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